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Health practitioner counseling man

Gender-based Violence and HIV Testing and
Counseling in Kenya

Couples HIV testing and counseling (CHTC) is a core intervention for identifying sero-discordant couples for both treatment and prevention interventions and is correlated with positive outcomes for both partners. Currently, CHTC has been introduced in different modalities and settings and is being expanded in many sub-Saharan African countries. However, it also poses risks for specific populations with respect to possible unintended negative outcomes, including gender-based violence (GBV). Similarly, violence and fear of violence are often cited as barriers to HIV testing and disclosing a positive test result. While there are a number of tools and resources regarding integration of GBV in HIV interventions generally, there are few or none specifically designed for the HTC context. This study will review and modify available tools to develop an intervention that integrates GBV/intimate partner violence (IPV) issues in the HTC context and enables providers to become more sensitive to GBV/IPV and raise, screen and discuss this issue with clients, and refer them appropriately. HIVCore will then pilot the intervention in the antenatal care setting to gather 1) primarily process data, specifically, on providers’ experience, and clients’ reports of the actual counseling experience; and 2) on an exploratory basis gather data on intermediate outcomes including, women’s knowledge about IPV, referral for IPV services for those screening positive for IPV, sense of agency related to decisions around uptake of services and perception that they have received meaningful support and counsel. The study responds to discussions in the field regarding how best to address IPV in the HTC/CHTC context.

To learn more about this study, please contact us at

What's New

HIVCore has recently published three new reports!

Phase I of the Cote d'Ivoire PMTCT cascade analysis study has been completed. Read about the identified bottlenecks in the PMTCT cascade and recommendations to improve the system as they introduce WHO Option B.

Findings from formative research to develop an intervention for addressing mental health/psychosocial issues and HIV vulnerability of marginalized adolescents in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia are now available. The report includes recommendations specific to a psychosocial intervention as well as broader recommendations to consider for future programming.

Formative research to assess feasibility, acceptability, and usability of a computerized alert and reminder system for medical providers to improve tuberculosis case finding and therapy for adults living with HIV in Western Kenya have been published.

Several studies are now underway. Go to our “Key Activities” page to learn more.

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