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Gender-based Violence and HIV Testing and
Counseling in Kenya

Closing gaps in the treatment cascade entails addressing the structural barriers to treatment initiation and adherence. Prominent among these barriers is gender-based violence, including intimate partner violence (IPV). The goal of this study was to pilot an approach to HIV counseling and testing (HCT) that addresses IPV and sexual relationship power inequalities and to explore the intervention’s potential for improving ART and PMTCT uptake and retention. Integrated IPV and HCT counseling significantly increased the proportion of women who were screened for IPV as well as the proportion of women who disclosed IPV to their HCT counselor. Integrated IPV and HCT counseling was well-accepted by providers, although it took 6.5 minutes longer on average to implement. There was evidence of positive health outcomes related to the intervention, such as taking positive actions to address IPV (e.g., following up on a referral, leaving an abusive partner, telling someone about the violence, or going somewhere for help), and intending to adhere to their PMTCT regimen.

The study responds to discussions in the field regarding how best to address IPV in the HTC/CHTC context.

To learn more about this study, please contact us at



Addressing intimate partner violence and power in relationships in HIV testing services: Results of an intervention piloted in Nairobi, Kenya (PDF)

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